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grib_compare examples

    1. The default behaviour for grib_compare without any option is to perform a bit by bit comparison of the two messages. If the messages are found to be bitwise different then grib_compare switches to a "key based" mode to find out which coded keys are different. To see how grib_compare works we first set the shortName=2d (2 metre dew point temperature) in the file regular_latlon_surface.grib1

       
      > grib_set -s shortName=2d regular_latlon_surface.grib1 2d.grib1
      

      Then we can compare the two fields with grib_compare.

       
      > grib_compare regular_latlon_surface.grib1 2d.grib1
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=2t paramId=167 stepRange=0 levelType=sfc level=0 packingType=grid_simple gridType=regular_ll --
      long [indicatorOfParameter]: [167] != [168]
      

      In the output we see that the only "coded" key with different values in the two messages is indicatorOfParameter which is the relevant key for the parameter information. The comparison can be forced to be successful listing the keys with different values in the -b option.

       
      > grib_compare -b indicatorOfParameter regular_latlon_surface.grib1 2d.grib1
      



    1. Two grib messages can be very different because they have different edition, but they can contain the same identical information in the header and the same data. To see how grib_compare can help in comparing messages with different edition we do

       
      > grib_set edition=2 reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1 reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      

      Then we compare the two fields with grib_compare.

       
      > grib_compare reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1 reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      long [totalLength]: [10908] != [10996]
      long [editionNumber]: [1] != [2]
      long [section1Length]: [52] != [21]
      [table2Version] not found in 2nd field
      [gridDefinition] not found in 2nd field
      [indicatorOfParameter] not found in 2nd field
      [indicatorOfTypeOfLevel] not found in 2nd field
      [yearOfCentury] not found in 2nd field
      [unitOfTimeRange] not found in 2nd field
      [P1] not found in 2nd field
      [P2] not found in 2nd field
      [numberIncludedInAverage] not found in 2nd field
      [numberMissingFromAveragesOrAccumulations] not found in 2nd field
      [centuryOfReferenceTimeOfData] not found in 2nd field
      [reservedNeedNotBePresent] not found in 2nd field
      [perturbationNumber] not found in 2nd field
      [numberOfForecastsInEnsemble] not found in 2nd field
      [padding_local1_1] not found in 2nd field
      long [section2Length]: [896] != [17]
      [pvlLocation] not found in 2nd field
      [dataRepresentationType] not found in 2nd field
      long [latitudeOfFirstGridPoint]: [87864] != [87863799]
      long [latitudeOfLastGridPoint]: [-87864] != [-87863799]
      long [longitudeOfLastGridPoint]: [357188] != [357187500]
      [padding_grid4_1] not found in 2nd field
      long [section4Length]: [9948] != [770]
      [dataFlag] not found in 2nd field
      

      It is clear that the two messages are coded in a very different way. If we now add the -e option, the tool will compare only the higher level information common between the two messages.

       
      > grib_compare -e reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1 reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      string [param]: [130.128] != [130]
      

      The comparison is successful because the two messages contain the same information coded in two different ways. We can display the list of keys used by grib_compare adding the option -v (verbose).

       
      > grib_compare -ve reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1 reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
        comparing centre as string
        comparing paramId as long
        comparing units as string
        comparing name as string
        comparing shortName as string
        comparing typeOfLevel as string
        comparing level as long
        comparing pv as double
        (184 values) tolerance=0 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing bitmapPresent as long
        comparing latitudeOfFirstGridPointInDegrees as double
        (1 values) tolerance=0.0005 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing longitudeOfFirstGridPointInDegrees as double
        (1 values) tolerance=0.0005 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing latitudeOfLastGridPointInDegrees as double
        (1 values) tolerance=0.0005 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing longitudeOfLastGridPointInDegrees as double
        (1 values) tolerance=0.0005 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing iDirectionIncrementInDegrees is set to missing in both fields
        comparing N as long
        comparing iScansNegatively as long
        comparing jScansPositively as long
        comparing jPointsAreConsecutive as long
        comparing pl as long
        comparing gridType as string
        comparing packedValues as double
        (6114 values) tolerance=0 	using compare_double_absolute
        comparing domain as string
        comparing levtype as string
        comparing levelist as long
        comparing date as long
        comparing time as long
        comparing step as long
        comparing param as string
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      string [param]: [130.128] != [130]
        comparing class as string
        comparing type as string
        comparing stream as string
        comparing expver as string
      

      For each key the type used in the comparison is reported and for the floating point keys also the tolerance used is printed.



    1. Some options are provided to compare only a set of keys in the messages. The option -H is used to compare only the headers coded in the message, it doesn't compare the data values. The option "-c key1:[i|d|s|n],key2:[i|d|s|n],... " can be used to compare a set of keys or namespaces. The letter after the colon is optional and it is used to force the type used in the comparison which is otherwise assumed to be the native type of the key. The possible types are:

      • :i -> integer
      • :d -> floating point (C type double)
      • :s -> string
      • :n -> namespace.

      When the type "n" is used all the set of keys belonging to the specified namespace are compared assuming their own native type. To illustrate how these options work we change the values coded in a message using grib_filter with the following rules file (see \ref grib_filter).

      set bitsPerValue=10;
      set values={1,2.5,3,4,5,6,70};
      write "first.grib1";
      set values={1,2.5,5,4,5,6,70};
      write "second.grib1";
      

      We first compare the two files using the -H option (only headers are compared).

       
      > grib_compare -H first.grib1 second.grib1
      

      The comparison is successful because the data are not compared. To compare only the data we have to compare the "data namespace".

       
      > grib_compare -c data:n first.grib1 second.grib1
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      double [packedValues]: 1 out of 7 different
       max absolute diff. = 2.0000000000000000e+00, relative diff. = 0.4
      	max diff. element 2: 3.00000000000000000000e+00 5.00000000000000000000e+00
      	tolerance=0.0000000000000000e+00 packingError: [0.0625005] [0.0625005]
      	values max= [70]  [70]         min= [1] [1]
      

      The comparison is showing that one of seven values is different in a comparison with the (default) absolute tolerance=0. We can change the tolerance with the -A option:

       
      > grib_compare -A 2 -c data:n first.grib1 second.grib1
      

      and we see that the comparison is successful if the absolute tolerance is set to 2. We can also set the relative tolerance for each key with the option -R:

       
      > grib_compare -R packedValues=0.4 -c data:n first.grib1 second.grib1
      

      and we get again a successful comparison because the relative tolerance is bigger than the relative absolute difference of two corresponding values. Another possible choice for the tolerance is to be equal to the packingError, which is the error due to the packing algorithm. If we change the decimalPrecision of a packed field we introduce a packing error sometimes bigger than the original packing error.

       
      > grib_set -s changeDecimalPrecision=0 first.grib1 third.grib1
      

      and we compare the two fields using the -P option (tolerance=packingError).

       
      > grib_compare -P -c data:n first.grib1 third.grib1
      

      the comparison is successful because their difference is within the biggest of the two packing error. With the option -P the comparison is failing only if the original data coded are different, not if the packing precision is changed. If we try again to compare the fields without the -P option:

       
      > grib_compare -c data:n first.grib1 third.grib1
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      double [packedValues]: 1 out of 7 different
       max absolute diff. = 5.0000000000000000e-01, relative diff. = 0.166667
      	max diff. element 1: 2.50000000000000000000e+00 3.00000000000000000000e+00
      	tolerance=0.0000000000000000e+00 packingError: [0.0625005] [0.5]
      	values max= [70]  [70]         min= [1] [1]
      

      we see that some values are different and that the maximum absolute differenc is close to the biggest packing error (max diff=0.48 packingError=0.5). The packing error was chosen to be 0.5 by setting decimalPrecision to 0 which means that we don't need to preserve any decimal figure.



    1. When we already know that the fields are not numerically identical, but have similar statistical characteristics we can compare their statistics namespaces:

       
      > grib_compare -c statistics:n first.grib1 third.grib1
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      double [avg]: [1.30714285714285711748e+01] != [1.31428571428571423496e+01]
      	absolute diff. = 0.0714286, relative diff. = 0.00543478
      	tolerance=0
      double [sd]: [2.32907531796090587761e+01] != [2.32589679873534969090e+01]
      	absolute diff. = 0.0317852, relative diff. = 0.00136471
      	tolerance=0
      double [skew]: [2.02295027950165895447e+00] != [2.02385673400705590197e+00]
      	absolute diff. = 0.000906455, relative diff. = 0.000447885
      	tolerance=0
      double [kurt]: [2.12697527593972246507e+00] != [2.12906658242618895827e+00]
      	absolute diff. = 0.00209131, relative diff. = 0.000982264
      	tolerance=0
      

      and we see that maximum, minimum, average, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis are compared. While the values are different by 0.48 the statistics comparison shows that the difference in the statistical values is never bigger than 0.052

       
      > grib_compare -A 0.052 -c statistics:n first.grib1 third.grib1
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=t paramId=130 stepRange=0 levelType=ml level=1 packingType=grid_simple gridType=reduced_gg --
      double [avg]: [1.30714285714285711748e+01] != [1.31428571428571423496e+01]
      	absolute diff. = 0.0714286, relative diff. = 0.00543478
      	tolerance=0.052
      

      The statistics namespace is available also for spherical harmonics data and provides information about the field in the geographic space computing them in the spectral space for performance reasons.



    1. When a file contains several fields and some keys are different, it is useful to have a summary report of the keys found different in the messages. This can be obtained with the option -f. We change few keys in a file:

       
      > grib_set -w typeOfLevel=surface -s step=48 tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      

      and comparing with the -f option:

       
      > grib_compare -f tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      
      -- GRIB #9 -- shortName=skt paramId=235 stepRange=96 levelType=sfc level=0 packingType=grid_simple gridType=regular_ll --
      long [forecastTime]: [96] != [48]
      
      -- GRIB #10 -- shortName=sd paramId=228141 stepRange=96 levelType=sfc level=0 packingType=grid_simple gridType=regular_ll --
      long [forecastTime]: [96] != [48]
      
      -- GRIB #11 -- shortName=sf paramId=228144 stepRange=0-96 levelType=sfc level=0 packingType=grid_simple gridType=regular_ll --
      long [dayOfEndOfOverallTimeInterval]: [26] != [24]
      long [lengthOfTimeRange]: [96] != [48]
      
      ...  output deleted 
      
      ## ERRORS SUMMARY #######
      ##
      ## Summary of different key values 
      ## forecastTime ( 3 different )
      ## dayOfEndOfOverallTimeInterval ( 11 different )
      ## lengthOfTimeRange ( 11 different )
      ##
      ## 14 different messages out of 38
      
      

      we get a list of all the different messages in the files and a summary report of the different keys.



    1. We can change the order of the messages in a file using grib_copy with the -B option:

       
      > grib_copy -B typeOfLevel tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      

      If we now compare the two files:

       
      > grib_compare -f tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      
      -- GRIB #1 -- shortName=10u paramId=165 stepRange=96 levelType=sfc level=10 packingType=grid_simple gridType=regular_ll --
      long [discipline]: [0] != [2]
      long [totalLength]: [1555] != [990]
      long [parameterCategory]: [2] != [0]
      long [parameterNumber]: [2] != [22]
      long [scaledValueOfFirstFixedSurface]: [10] != [0]
      long [typeOfSecondFixedSurface]: [255] != [106]
      scaleFactorOfSecondFixedSurface is set to missing in 1st field is not missing in 2nd field
      scaledValueOfSecondFixedSurface is set to missing in 1st field is not missing in 2nd field
      long [numberOfValues]: [684] != [239]
      double [referenceValue]: [-1.57229328155517578125e+01] != [4.15843811035156250000e+01]
      	absolute diff. = 57.3073, relative diff. = 1.3781
      	tolerance=3.8147e-06
      long [binaryScaleFactor]: [-10] != [-15]
      long [bitsPerValue]: [16] != [24]
      long [section6Length]: [6] != [92]
      long [bitMapIndicator]: [255] != [0]
      long [section7Length]: [1373] != [722]
      Different size for "codedValues"  [684]  [239]
      ...    very long output 
      

      the comparison is failing because of the different order of the messages. We can use the -r option to compare the files assuming that the messages are not in the same order:

       
      > grib_compare -r tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      

      and we have a successful comparison because for each message in the first file an identical message is found in the second file. This option should be used carefully as it is very time expensive.



grib_copy examples

    1. To copy only the pressure levels from a file

      >  grib_copy -w levtype=pl ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib
      



    1. To copy only the fields that are not on pressure levels from a file

      >  grib_copy -w levtype!=pl ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib
      



    1. To copy only the first three fields from a file

      >  grib_copy -w count=1/2/3 ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib
      



    1. A grib_file with multi field messages can be converted in single field messages with a simple grib_copy.

      >  grib_copy multi.grib simple.grib
      



    1. Use the square brackets to insert the value of a key in the name of the output file (This is a good way to split a large GRIB file)

      >  grib_copy in.grib 'out_[shortName].grib'
      

      Note: we need to quote the name of the output so the shell does not interpret the square brackets



    1. To copy fields whose typeOfLevel is either 'surface' or 'meanSea'

      >  grib_copy -w typeOfLevel=surface/meanSea orig.grib out.grib
      



    1. To copy selected fields and apply sorting (sorted by level in ascending order)

      >  grib_copy -w typeOfLevel=heightAboveGround -B'level:i asc' tigge_af_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib
      

      Note: we need to specify the ':i' to get a numerical sort. By default values are sorted as strings so a level of 100 would come before 20!



grib_dump examples

    1. To dump in a WMO documentation style with hexadecimal octet values (-H).

      > grib_dump -OH ../data/reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1
      



    1. To add key aliases and type information.

      > grib_dump -OtaH ../data/reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib1
      



    1. To obtain all the key names (computed keys included) available in a grib file.

       
      >  grib_dump -D ../data/regular_latlon_surface.grib1
      



grib_filter examples

    1. The grib_filter processes sequentially all grib messages contained in the input files and applies the rules to each one of them. Input messages can be written to the output by using the "write" statement. The write statement can be parameterised so that output is sent to multiple files depending on key values used in the output file name. If we write a rules_file containing the only statement:

      write "../data/split/[centre]_[date]_[dataType]_[levelType].grib[editionNumber]";
      

      Applying this rules_file to the "../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2" grib file we obtain several files in the ../data/split directory containing fields split according to their key values

      > grib_filter rules_file ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2
      > ls ../data/split
      ecmf_20060619_pf_sfc.grib2
      ecmf_20060630_pf_sfc.grib2
      ecmf_20070122_pf_pl.grib2
      ecmf_20070122_pf_pt.grib2
      ecmf_20070122_pf_pv.grib2
      ecmf_20070122_pf_sfc.grib2
      



    1. The key values in the file name can also be obtained in a different format by indicating explicitly the type required after a colon.

      • :i for integer
      • :d for double
      • :s for string

      The following statement works in a slightly different way from the previous example, including in the output file name the integer values for centre and dataType.

      write "../data/split/[centre:i]_[date]_[dataType:i]_[levelType].grib[editionNumber]";
      

      Running the same command again we obtain a different list of files.

      > grib_filter rules_file ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2
      > ls ../data/split
      98_20060619_4_sfc.grib2
      98_20060630_4_sfc.grib2
      98_20070122_4_pl.grib2
      98_20070122_4_pt.grib2
      98_20070122_4_pv.grib2
      98_20070122_4_sfc.grib2
      



    1. Other statements are allowed in the grib_filter syntax:

      • if ( condition ) { block of rules } else { block of rules } The condition can be made using ==,!= and joining single block conditions with || and && The statement can be any valid statement also another nested condition
      • set keyname = keyvalue;
      • print "string to print also with key values like in the file name"
      • transient keyname1 = keyname2;
      • comments beginning with #
      • defined(keyname) to check if a key is defined in a message
      • missing(keyname) to check if the value of the key is set to MISSING
      • To set a key value to MISSING, use 'set key=MISSING;' (note the case)
      • You can also make an assertion with 'assert(condition)'. If condition is false, it will abort the filter.

      A complex example of grib_filter rules is the following to change temperature in a grib edition 1 file.

      # Temperature
      if ( level == 850 && indicatorOfParameter == 11 ) {
          print "found indicatorOfParameter=[indicatorOfParameter] level=[level] date=[date]";
          transient oldtype = type ;
          set identificationOfOriginatingGeneratingSubCentre=98;
          set gribTablesVersionNo = 128;
          set indicatorOfParameter = 130;
          set localDefinitionNumber=1;
          set marsClass="od";
          set marsStream="kwbc";
          # Negatively/Positively Perturbed Forecast
          if ( oldtype == 2 || oldtype == 3 ) {
            set marsType="pf";
            set experimentVersionNumber="4001";
          }
          # Control Forecast
          if ( oldtype == 1 ) {
            set marsType="cf";
            set experimentVersionNumber="0001";
          }
          set numberOfForecastsInEnsemble=11;
          write;
          print "indicatorOfParameter=[indicatorOfParameter] level=[level] date=[date]";
          print;
      }
      



    1. Here is an example of an IF statement comparing a key with a string. Note you have to use the "is" keyword for strings and not "==", and to negate you add the "!" before the whole condition:

      # Select Geopotential Height messages which are not on a Reduced Gaussian Grid
      if (shortName is "gh" && !(gridType is "reduced_gg" )) {
          set step = 72;
      }
      



    1. The switch statement is an enhanced version of the if statement. Its syntax is the following:

      switch (key1) {
          case val1:
              # block of rules;
          case val2:
              # block of rules;
          default:
              # block of rules
      }
      

      Each value of each key given as argument to the switch statement is matched against the values specified in the case statements. If there is a match, then the block or rules corresponding to the matching case statement is executed. Otherwise, the default case is executed. The default case is mandatory if the case statements do not cover all the possibilities. The "~" operator can be used to match "anything". Following is an example showing the use of the switch statement:

      processing paramId=[paramId] [shortName] [stepType]
      switch (shortName) {
          case tp :
              set stepType=accum;
          case 10u :
              set typeOfLevel=surface;
          default:
      }
      



grib_get examples

    1. grib_get fails if a key is not found.

       
      > grib_get -p gribname ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2
      



    1. To get the step of the first GRIB message in a file:

       
      > grib_get -w count=1 -p step ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2
      



grib_get_data examples

    1. To get a latitude, longitude, value list, skipping the missing values(=9999)

      > grib_get_data ../data/reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      



    1. If you want to define your missing value=1111 and to print the string 'missing' in place of it

      > grib_get_data -m 1111:missing ../data/reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      



    1. If you want to print the value of other keys with the data value list

      > grib_get_data -p centre,level,step ../data/reduced_gaussian_model_level.grib2
      



grib_index_build examples

    1. By default grib_index_build will index on the MARS keys.

       
      >  grib_index_build ../data/reduced*.grib1 ../data/regular*.grib1 ../data/reduced*.grib2
      



    1. To specify a custom list of keys to index on, use the -k option.

       
      >  grib_index_build -k paramId,dataDate ../data/reduced*.grib1 ../data/regular*.grib1 ../data/reduced*.grib2
      



grib_ls examples

    1. Without options a default list of keys is printed. The default list is different depending on the type of grib message.

       
      >  grib_ls ../data/reduced*.grib1 ../data/regular*.grib1 ../data/reduced*.grib2 
      



    1. To print offset and count number in file use the keys offset and count Also the total count in a set of files is available as countTotal

       
      >  grib_ls -p offset,count,countTotal ../data/reduced*.grib1
      



    1. To list only a subset of messages use the -w (where option). Only the pressure levels are listed with the following line.

       
      >  grib_ls -w levelType=pl ../tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 
      



    1. All the grib messages not on pressure levels are listed as follows:

       
      >  grib_ls -w levelType!=pl ../tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 
      



    1. To get the closest grid point to a latitude/longitude.

       
      > grib_ls -l 51.46,-1.33,1 -p paramId,name ../data/reduced_gaussian_surface.grib2
      ../data/reduced_gaussian_surface.grib2
      paramId     shortName    value 
      167         2t          282.002     
      1 of 1 messages in ../data/reduced_gaussian_surface.grib2
      
      1 of 1 total messages in 1 files
      Input Point: latitude=51.46  longitude=-1.33
      Grid Point chosen #3 index=749 latitude=51.63 longitude=0.00 distance=93.81 (Km)
      Other grid Points
      <ul><li>1 - index=845 latitude=48.84 longitude=0.00 distance=306.86 (Km)
      </li><li>2 - index=944 latitude=48.84 longitude=356.40 distance=333.66 (Km)
      </li><li>3 - index=749 latitude=51.63 longitude=0.00 distance=93.81 (Km)
      </li><li>4 - index=844 latitude=51.63 longitude=356.25 distance=168.37 (Km)
      



    1. To get a list ordered by the 'level' key (ascending order).

       
      >  grib_ls -B 'level:i asc' tigge_af_ecmwf.grib2
      

      Note: we need to specify the ':i' to get a numerical sort. By default values are sorted as strings so a level of 100 would come before 20!



grib_set examples

    1. To set productDefinitionTemplateNumber=2 only for the fields with productDefinitionTemplateNumber=11

      > grib_set -s productDefinitionTemplateNumber=2 -w productDefinitionTemplateNumber=11 ../data/tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      



    1. To set productDefinitionTemplateNumber=2 only for the fields for which productDefinitionTemplateNumber is not equal to 11

      > grib_set -s productDefinitionTemplateNumber=2 -w productDefinitionTemplateNumber!=11 tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      



    1. When a key is not used all the bits of its value should be set to 1 to indicate that it is missing. Since the length (number of octet) is different from a key to another, the value that we have to code for missing keys is not unique. To give an easy way to set a key to missing a string "missing" or "MISSING" is accepted by grib_set as follows:

      > grib_set -s scaleFactorOfFirstFixedSurface=missing,scaledValueOfFirstFixedSurface=MISSING ../data/regular_latlon_surface.grib2 out.grib2
      

      Since some values can not be set to missing you can get an error for those keys.



    1. To set scaleFactorOfSecondFixedSurface to missing only for the fields for which scaleFactorOfSecondFixedSurface is not missing:

       
      > grib_set -s scaleFactorOfSecondFixedSurface=missing -w scaleFactorOfSecondFixedSurface!=missing tigge_pf_ecmwf.grib2 out.grib2
      



    1. It's possible to produce a grib edition 2 file from a grib edition 1 just changing the edition number with grib_set. At this stage of development all the geography parameters, level and time information is correctly translated, for the product definition extra set calls must be done. To do this properly, \ref grib_filter is suggested.

       
      grib_set -s edition=2 ../data/reduced_gaussian_pressure_level.grib1
      



    1. With grib edition 2 is possible to compress data using the jpeg algorithm. To change packing algorithm from grid_simple (simple packing) to grid_jpeg (jpeg2000 packing):

       
      > grib_set -s packingType=grid_jpeg ../data/regular_gaussian_model_level.grib2 out.grib2
      



    1. It's possible to ask ecCodes to calculate the number of bits per value needed to pack a given field with a fixed number of decimal digits of precision. For example if we want to pack a temperature expressed in Kelvin with 1 digits of precision after the decimal point we can set changeDecimalPrecision=1

       
      > grib_set -s changeDecimalPrecision=1 ../data/regular_latlon_surface.grib2 ../data/out.grib2
      



grib_to_netcdf examples

    1. Produce a NetCDF file from grib edition 1

      > grib_to_netcdf -o output.nc input.grib1
      



    1. If your grib file has analysis and 6-hour forecast, then ignore keys 'type' and 'step'. Thus type=an/fc and step=00/06 will not be considered as netcdf dimensions.

      > grib_to_netcdf -I type,step -o output.nc input.grib
      



    1. Do not use time of validity. If time of validity is used, it means the 1D time coordinate is considered as date+time+step, otherwise 3 different dimensions are created. The default behaviour is to use the time of validity.

      > grib_to_netcdf -T -o output.nc input.grib
      



    1. Produce NetCDF with data type of FLOAT (32bit floating point, for higher precision). Note these types were chosen to provide a reasonably wide range of trade-offs between data precision and number of bits required for each value

      > grib_to_netcdf -D NC_FLOAT -o output.nc input.grib
      



    1. Set the netcdf dimension 'time' to be unlimited i.e. time can have unlimited length so variables using this dimension can grow along this dimension.

      > grib_to_netcdf -u time -o output.nc input.grib
      



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